Since the CCRES is a research-oriented initiative to develop models and tools, no environmental and social impacts are anticipated during its implementation. No specific safeguard instrument needs to be developed under the Project. For the two ongoing Bank-financed projects, COREMAP-CTI (Indonesia) and PRDP (Philippine) the main beneficiaries of the tools, the safeguard instruments are already established that will apply once the application of the tools in the two projects creates safeguard issues. But since the tools developed under the CCRES will be publicly open and used by various users that include international community of coral reef, mangrove and sea-grass researchers and practitioners, climate scientists and environmental engineers, natural resource economists, behavioral economists, governance experts and modelers, a simple environmental and social safeguard guideline need to be developed. Any future application of the tools would be subject to the safeguard guidelines and mitigation measures to be established under the beneficiary project which are not covered by COREMAP-CTI and PRDP safeguard instruments.
On environmental safeguard, the Project triggered OP 4.01 on Environmental Assessment as there might be some impacts related to the restriction to access of natural resources from the development of marine spatial plans. The Project also triggered OP 4.04 Natural Habitats since it will work in high biodiversity habitats such as coral reefs and sea grass beds, many of them still in a natural state. However, since the objectives of the project are to protect these habitats and reduce the threats to them from unplanned development or unsustainable business practices, the outcomes are expected to be highly positive. Likewise, the beneficiary projects to which CCRES is linked aim to protect the coastal ecosystem and to enhance its sustainable management through improving the management effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas and supporting communities in the monitoring of their coral reefs to protect against destructive fishing practices and safeguard their natural capital. Thus, the Project itself is expected to have overall strong positive environmental outcomes with associated social benefits linked to improved alternative livelihood options.
On social safeguard, the Project triggered OP 4.12 on involuntary resettlement as there might be some social impacts related to restriction of access to fisheries resources or restrictions on unsustainable use that could result from zoning or marine spatial plans informed by CCRES, even if not implemented by CCRES. Any such plans would be developed in consultation with beneficiaries and any implications regarding access restrictions, for instance through zoning, would be the result of consensus, as was the case under COREMAP. For instance, the access restriction to natural resources may be caused by the application of tools developed under Component 2 where the Project will undertake a structured process to empower and enable communities to transform their local economies to more sustainable ‘blue economies’ in a sustained manner or by the application of Marine Protected Area (MPA). Though, the Project itself is expected to have overall strong positive environmental outcomes with associated social benefits linked to improved alternative livelihood options.
OP 4.10 on Indigenous Peoples is triggered. CCRES may undertake field activities in pilot locations where there are indigenous peoples. Adverse impacts to the IP groups are not anticipated. Should the project sites include indigenous communities these groups will be project beneficiaries. The main issue regarding the indigenous peoples is more on the need of meaningful consultation during the tools application, to ensure that they will get culturally appropriate benefits of the tools application.
As the first step, the use of the tools shall not facilitate and shall not be used to finance any of the following activities:
Subsequently, the matrix below provides principles or measures to mitigate any environmental and social impacts related to the environmental assessment, natural habitats, involuntary resettlement and indigenous peoples’ issues, the four safeguard policies triggered by the Project. The general guideline will apply if the tools application creates impacts due to land acquisition and indigenous peoples and provide added value and positive enhancement through environmental assessment and the conservation of natural habitats. The beneficiaries/user of the tools will then develop necessary action plans to mitigate the impacts.
Negative environmental impacts are not anticipated as the project will not support implementation of the marine spatial plans and business model it develops. In fact, the project impacts are expected to be overwhelmingly positive. The project is designed to improve the way communities interact with the coastal resources on which they depend for essential ecosystem services, by making these services more explicit and mapping flows to demonstrate how and by whom these benefits are captured.
The project will work in high biodiversity habitats such as coral reefs and sea grass beds, many of them still in a natural state. But since the objectives of the project are to protect these habitats and reduce the threats to them from unplanned development or unsustainable business practices, the outcomes are expected to be highly positive such as improving the management effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas and supporting communities in the monitoring of their coral reefs to protect against destructive fishing practices and safeguard their natural capital.
Involuntary land acquisition and resettlement are not anticipated. Access restriction particularly with the determination of marine protected area and land donation for development of community facilities may take place.
Land donation may take place if the community facilities are to be constructed as part of the tools application.
Land donation is acceptable only if: i) the people involved are fully knowledgeable about the project and its implications and consequences and freely agree to participate in the project; and ii) the people involved have the options to agree or disagree with the land acquisition,
The following criteria are suggested as guideline:
Criteria of Indigenous Peoples (OP 4.10 on Indigenous Peoples):
a) self-identification as members of a distinct indigenous cultural group and recognition of this identity by others;
b) collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats or ancestral territories in the project area and to the natural resources in these habitats and territories;
c) customary cultural, economic, social, or political institutions that are separate from those of the dominant society and culture; and
d) an indigenous language, often different from the official language of the country or region.
Adverse impacts to the IP groups are not anticipated. Should the project sites include indigenous communities these groups will be project beneficiaries.
Download: CCRES: Environment and Social Safeguards (pdf)